Author Topic: BUG of "USES MARCO"  (Read 7643 times)

Offline ankiller

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BUG of "USES MARCO"
« on: February 24, 2014, 07:28:41 AM »
proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   uses ebx,ecx,edx,esi
   locals none
   mov eax,1
endproc

OD:
00401034    55              push ebp
00401035    89E5            mov ebp,esp
00401037    895D FC         mov dword ptr ss:[ebp-0x4],ebx
0040103A    894D F8         mov dword ptr ss:[ebp-0x8],ecx
0040103D    8955 F4         mov dword ptr ss:[ebp-0xC],edx
00401040    8975 F0         mov dword ptr ss:[ebp-0x10],esi
00401043    83EC 10         sub esp,0x10<--------------------------Here ESP is OK
00401046    B8 01000000     mov eax,0x1
0040104B    83C4 10         add esp,0x10<--------------------------Why add ESP?????
0040104E    5E              pop esi       ;pop what?     
0040104F    5A              pop edx      ;pop what?
00401050    59              pop ecx      ;pop what?
00401051    5B              pop ebx      ;pop what?
00401052    89EC            mov esp,ebp
00401054    5D              pop ebp
00401055    C2 0800         retn 0x8


Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #1 on: February 24, 2014, 09:44:01 AM »
Confirmed!, i see ghosts the same:

Compile:
Code: [Select]
%include "nasmx.inc"

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   uses ebx,ecx,edx,esi
   locals none
   mov eax,1
endproc
With: "nasm -f win32 test.asm"

Disassemble with: "ndisasm -b 32 test.obj"
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push ebp
0000003D  89E5              mov ebp,esp
0000003F  895DFC            mov [ebp-0x4],ebx
00000042  894DF8            mov [ebp-0x8],ecx
00000045  8955F4            mov [ebp-0xc],edx
00000048  8975F0            mov [ebp-0x10],esi
0000004B  83EC10            sub esp,byte +0x10
0000004E  B801000000        mov eax,0x1
00000053  83C410            add esp,byte +0x10
00000056  5E                pop esi
00000057  5A                pop edx
00000058  59                pop ecx
00000059  5B                pop ebx
0000005A  89EC              mov esp,ebp
0000005C  5D                pop ebp
0000005D  C20800            ret 0x8

But it works, because of "mov esp,ebp".

"works" = "works" * 0.5 => LRESULT: Not really.


Error report

This code, print register EBX, before and after:
Code: [Select]
bits 32
%include "nasmx.inc"
section .data use32

align 4
txt: db 13,10,"Hello world: %d",0

section .text use32

global main
extern printf

align 4
proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   uses ebx,ecx,edx,esi
   locals none
   mov eax,1
endproc

align 4
main:
push ebp
push ebx
mov ebp,esp

; Print current EBX
push ebx
push txt
call printf
add esp,8

; Call TESTPROC
push 0xFEEDBEEF
push 0xCAFEBABE
call testProc

; Print current EBX
push ebx
push txt
call printf
add esp,8


mov esp,ebp
pop ebx
pop ebp
ret

Produces output:
Code: [Select]
Hello world: 2130571264
Hello world: -17973521


Fix:

This code, print register EBX, before and after:
Code: [Select]
bits 32
%include "nasmx.inc"
section .data use32

align 4
txt: db 13,10,"Hello world: %d",0

section .text use32

global main
extern printf

align 4
;proc testProc,dword x,dword y
;   uses ebx,ecx,edx,esi
;   locals none
;   mov eax,1
;endproc


testProc:
push ebp
mov ebp,esp
mov [ebp-0x4],ebx
mov [ebp-0x8],ecx
mov [ebp-0xc],edx
mov [ebp-0x10],esi
sub esp,byte +0x10
mov eax,0x1
pop esi
pop edx
pop ecx
pop ebx
mov esp,ebp
pop ebp
ret 0x8

align 4
main:
push ebp
push ebx
mov ebp,esp

; Print current EBX
push ebx
push txt
call printf
add esp,8

; Call TESTPROC
push 0xFEEDBEEF
push 0xCAFEBABE
call testProc

; Print current EBX
push ebx
push txt
call printf
add esp,8


mov esp,ebp
pop ebx
pop ebp
ret

Produces output:
Code: [Select]
Hello world: 2130571264
Hello world: 2130571264


Conclusion:

It works, but registers are not saved/restored like it should be.
It would not work, if a stack register, at procedures epilog, would not be restored.
By using "mov esp,ebp" could save nasty surprise for later, like it did now - gotta nasty surprise.
Avoiding of "mov esp,ebp" would show a clear error on the first run, but it didn't,
because, esp, was manually fixed/restored, so, error rised later, like we see, now.

Why:

It seem's it was a small mix with x64 "non-calling convention architecture".
You see, this is some basic x64 procedure model:
Code: [Select]
align 16
procedure:
; Prolog
; ...
sub rsp,0x28
; ...

; Epilog
; ...
add rsp,0x28
; ...
ret

Notify:
sub - allocate stack space at prolog,
add - deallocate stack space at epilog.
...
Yes, but it's for x64.



Final conclusion:

Lines of code:
  • add esp,byte +0x10
  • mov esp,ebp
Should be removed, then, it should work, like it should.


Offtopic, How to compress sentence: "Should be removed, then, it should work, like it should."
Like this:
Assign x = Should
Assign y = it
LRESULT: "X be removed, then, Y X work, like Y X."

Bye,
Encryptor256 @ Error Analysis Department. :D
Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.

Offline Frank Kotler

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #2 on: February 24, 2014, 10:55:32 AM »
What would happen if you put "locals none" first and "uses ..." after?

Best,
Frank


Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #3 on: February 24, 2014, 10:59:22 AM »
What would happen if you put "locals none" first and "uses ..." after?

Best,
Frank

Code:
Code: [Select]
%include "nasmx.inc"

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   locals none
   uses ebx,ecx,edx,esi
   mov eax,1
endproc

With: "nasm -f win32 test.asm", produced an error:
Code: [Select]
test.asm:5: fatal: (USES:8) uses directive must come before locals directive.
Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.

Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #4 on: February 24, 2014, 11:00:43 AM »
Confirm twice, i think, x32 is mixed with a x64 procedure model.

x64 Code:
Code: [Select]
bits 64
%include "nasmx.inc"

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   uses rbx,rcx,rdx,rsi
   locals none
   mov rax,1
endproc

x64 Compile with: "nasm -f win64 test.asm",
x64 Debug with: "ndisasm -b 64 test.obj"
x64 Result:
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push rbp
0000003D  4889E5            mov rbp,rsp
00000040  48895DF8          mov [rbp-0x8],rbx
00000044  48894DF0          mov [rbp-0x10],rcx
00000048  488955E8          mov [rbp-0x18],rdx
0000004C  488975E0          mov [rbp-0x20],rsi
00000050  4883EC20          sub rsp,byte +0x20
00000054  B801000000        mov eax,0x1
00000059  4883C420          add rsp,byte +0x20
0000005D  5E                pop rsi
0000005E  5A                pop rdx
0000005F  59                pop rcx
00000060  5B                pop rbx
00000061  4889EC            mov rsp,rbp
00000064  5D                pop rbp
00000065  C3                ret

Nice easter egg, can this even work? :D

So,
rsp - 0x20 ; sub rsp,byte +0x20
rsp + 0x20 ; add rsp,byte +0x20
rsp + 0x08 ; pop rsi
rsp + 0x08 ; pop rdx
rsp + 0x08 ; pop rcx
rsp + 0x08 ; pop rbx

Stack undeflow or overflow?
It's called a stack undeflow.

Bye.
Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.

Offline Frank Kotler

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #5 on: February 24, 2014, 11:26:37 AM »
Okay, thanks for checking it, Encryptor256. I'd test it myself, but I haven't got NASMX installed (properly) at this point...

Best,
Frank


Offline Rob Neff

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #6 on: February 24, 2014, 05:27:12 PM »
Logically, the USES macro moves the contents of registers to the procedure stack.  We defer updating the stack offset until after the LOCALS macro since additional local procedure variables may be defined via LOCAL until we reach ENDLOCALS.  That's the main reason why USES must come before LOCALS.

When specifying LOCALS NONE we should be simply offsetting the stack pointer to the correct aligned offset of total registers saved.

Finally, during ENDPROC, we unwind the stack and restore any previously saved registers.  This scheme is used identically between x32 and x64 and accounts for the various calling conventions supported.

I'm not sure why you're seeing the insertion of add esp, 0x10 ( or, in encryptor's case, the add rsp, byte +20 )  line there.  I'll investigate when I get some free time.

Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #7 on: February 24, 2014, 05:59:56 PM »
Okay, here is one more x32 test, notify "uses ebx":

Compile code with "nasm.exe -f win32 test.asm -o test.obj":
Code: [Select]
bits 32
%include "nasmx.inc"

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   uses ebx
   locals none
   mov eax,1
endproc

NDisasm with "ndisasm -b 32 test.obj":
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push ebp
0000003D  89E5              mov ebp,esp
0000003F  895DFC            mov [ebp-0x4],ebx
00000042  83EC08            sub esp,byte +0x8
00000045  B801000000        mov eax,0x1
0000004A  83C404            add esp,byte +0x4
0000004D  5B                pop ebx
0000004E  89EC              mov esp,ebp
00000050  5D                pop ebp
00000051  C20800            ret 0x8

Here is one more x64 test, notify "uses rbx":

Compile code with "nasm.exe -f win32 test.asm -o test.obj":
Code: [Select]
bits 64
%include "nasmx.inc"

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
   uses rbx
   locals none
   mov rax,1
endproc

NDisasm with "ndisasm -b 64 test.obj":
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push rbp
0000003D  4889E5            mov rbp,rsp
00000040  48895DF8          mov [rbp-0x8],rbx
00000044  4883EC10          sub rsp,byte +0x10
00000048  B801000000        mov eax,0x1
0000004D  4883C408          add rsp,byte +0x8
00000051  5B                pop rbx
00000052  4889EC            mov rsp,rbp
00000055  5D                pop rbp
00000056  C3                ret


Offtopic:

Path: "nasmx-1.3\demos\win32\DEMO17"

DEMO17 - Bitmaps and Timer example

Demo17 source code claims, that,
it want's to be Demo16,
but Demo16 already exists,
partial data section content of demo17.asm:

Code: [Select]
...
[section .data]

    szTitle:               declare(NASMX_TCHAR) NASMX_TEXT("Demo 16 - WinFloor"), 0x0
...

* Single byte change in window title is required.

Bye!
Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.

Offline Rob Neff

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #8 on: February 24, 2014, 08:24:09 PM »
NDisasm with "ndisasm -b 64 test.obj":
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push rbp
0000003D  4889E5            mov rbp,rsp
00000040  48895DF8          mov [rbp-0x8],rbx
00000044  4883EC10          sub rsp,byte +0x10
00000048  B801000000        mov eax,0x1
0000004D  4883C408          add rsp,byte +0x8
00000051  5B                pop rbx
00000052  4889EC            mov rsp,rbp
00000055  5D                pop rbp
00000056  C3                ret

hmmmm...that's the way it's supposed to work.  By keeping the stack aligned to a 16-byte boundary in the prologue any future INVOKE calls within the procedure can happen without penalty.  During the epilogue it correctly adjusts the stack offset by first adding 0x8 ( ie: we allocated an additional 8 bytes in the prologue due to only storing one register ) prior to popping off the register(s) saved.

In addition to investigating the original issue this also gives me an idea that the logic can be optimized further when saving registers if we encounter a LOCALS NONE statement.  We can eliminate the "add rsp, 8" statement in the epilogue if we pre-align saved registers on the alignment boundary and just start popping.  So maybe I can kill two birds with one stone here!  8)


Path: "nasmx-1.3\demos\win32\DEMO17"

DEMO17 - Bitmaps and Timer example

Demo17 source code claims, that,
it want's to be Demo16,
but Demo16 already exists,
partial data section content of demo17.asm:

Code: [Select]
...
[section .data]

    szTitle:               declare(NASMX_TCHAR) NASMX_TEXT("Demo 16 - WinFloor"), 0x0
...

* Single byte change in window title is required.

Bye!

Well, at least that one is easy to fix!  :D

Offline Rob Neff

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #9 on: February 25, 2014, 04:21:50 AM »
OK, made a bug fix to the USES macro to prevent the issue.
If you want to test it you can grab an entire snapshot or just download nasmx.inc

Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #10 on: February 25, 2014, 08:02:44 AM »
Did some testing with new nasmx.inc (117,979 bytes).

* Above problems seems to be fixed.

But there is something else.


1. Trying to use more registers

Code compiled with: "nasm.exe -f win64 test.asm -o test.obj"
Code: [Select]
bits 64
%include "nasmx.inc"

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
    uses r10,r11,r12,r13,r14,r15,rdi,rsi,rbx
    locals none

xor rax,rax
endproc

Results in:
Code: [Select]
test.asm:5: error: parser: instruction expected


2. Macro "invoke" saves arguments in stack, before call is made

I think, this has to be done in procedure context, rather than before call is made with invoke macro.
What if somebody call wsprintfA, this procedure doesn't care,
if somebody saved those arguments into shadow space before.
The one who designed "wsprintfA" ,that is his responsibility to save registers if he needs to do that.
This has to be procedure issue rather than invoke macro issue.

Yes, somebody could use FASTCALL_STACK_PRELOAD, but this is not the case.
Of course, backward compatibility does not permits to change something.

.- But what if somebody build obj library and call it from other languages, like C.
In C, the somebody will not have access to invoke macro and it will not save somebody's arguments.

.- What if somebody need to switch between somebody's custom procedures and some system procedures, like wsprintfA.
Switching between each call could be full of pain.

What if, what if, what if... endless loop of "what if's".
Who is this "somebody", well, no one know's, some mystical person. :D


3. 2.21: NASMX_PRAGMA: Defining pragmas

Was reading NASMX fables, from book "NASM-X.CHM" and found one thing, something...

So i made up a Puzzle Game:

Here is one letter too much, which one? : "FASTCALL_STACK_PRELOAD, [ ENABLED | DISABLE ]"

Yes, you think left right,
this is how it should be:
".... ENABLE ....".

* One byte removal is required.


And that's it, for now!
Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.

Offline Rob Neff

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #11 on: February 25, 2014, 05:24:58 PM »
Code: [Select]
    uses r10,r11,r12,r13,r14,r15,rdi,rsi,rbx

test.asm:5: error: parser: instruction expected

The USES macro definition currently only accepts up to 8 parameters.  I guess we should expand this to a larger number that accounts for all general regs.  Of course, at that point, we may want to use the pushad/popad opcodes for 32-bit apps ( 64-bit apps don't have that luxury ) to get a shorter/faster program. 

Switching between each call could be full of pain.

I'm not sure what point you're trying to make here.  For Win64 simply NASMX_PRAGMA FASTCALL_STACK_PRELOAD, DISABLE and assume nothing about the shadow space other than it exists for you.  If you mean something else perhaps create another thread to continue discussing there?

one? : "FASTCALL_STACK_PRELOAD, [ ENABLED | DISABLE ]"

Good eye!  Will fix!

Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #12 on: February 25, 2014, 05:40:03 PM »
Okay, here was one more:

Compile this code with: "nasm -f win64 test.asm -o test.obj"
Code: [Select]
bits 64
%include "nasmx.inc"

NASMX_PRAGMA FASTCALL_STACK_PRELOAD, DISABLE

IMPORT myprocedure

proc testProc,dword x,dword y
uses rbx
    locals none

invoke myprocedure,0xFEED,0xA,0xBEEF

xor rax,rax
endproc

NDisasm with: "ndisasm -b 64 test.obj"
Notify: Twice the sub instruction.
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push rbp
0000003D  4889E5            mov rbp,rsp
00000040  48895DF0          mov [rbp-0x10],rbx
00000044  4883EC10          sub rsp,byte +0x10
00000048  4883EC20          sub rsp,byte +0x20
0000004C  B9EDFE0000        mov ecx,0xfeed
00000051  BA0A000000        mov edx,0xa
00000056  41B8EFBE0000      mov r8d,0xbeef
0000005C  E800000000        call qword 0x61
00000061  4883C420          add rsp,byte +0x20
00000065  4831C0            xor rax,rax
00000068  5B                pop rbx
00000069  4889EC            mov rsp,rbp
0000006C  5D                pop rbp
0000006D  C3                ret

AND: Is that normal, that invoke macro loads constant parameters into 32 bit registers?

Bye.
Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.

Offline Rob Neff

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #13 on: February 25, 2014, 05:54:12 PM »
Notify: Twice the sub instruction.
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push rbp
0000003D  4889E5            mov rbp,rsp
00000040  48895DF0          mov [rbp-0x10],rbx
00000044  4883EC10          sub rsp,byte +0x10   ; <-- allocates USES storage space , created by USES macro
00000048  4883EC20          sub rsp,byte +0x20   ; <-- alocates parameter space , created by INVOKE macro
0000004C  B9EDFE0000        mov ecx,0xfeed
00000051  BA0A000000        mov edx,0xa
00000056  41B8EFBE0000      mov r8d,0xbeef
0000005C  E800000000        call qword 0x61
00000061  4883C420          add rsp,byte +0x20 ; <-- restore parameter space , performed by INVOKE macro
00000065  4831C0            xor rax,rax
00000068  5B                pop rbx
00000069  4889EC            mov rsp,rbp
0000006C  5D                pop rbp
0000006D  C3                ret

INVOKE cannot know whether you have actual code between it and the prior USES/LOCALS macros.
You may wish to use NASMX_PRAGMA CALLSTACK, 32 prior to your proc definition to see how your stack pointer is better optimized.

AND: Is that normal, that invoke macro loads constant parameters into 32 bit registers?

Yes, if it is a value that can fit in 32-bits - will use the shorter opcodes.

Offline encryptor256

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Re: BUG of "USES MARCO"
« Reply #14 on: February 25, 2014, 05:59:15 PM »
Notify: Twice the sub instruction.
Code: [Select]
0000003C  55                push rbp
0000003D  4889E5            mov rbp,rsp
00000040  48895DF0          mov [rbp-0x10],rbx
00000044  4883EC10          sub rsp,byte +0x10   ; <-- allocates USES storage space , created by USES macro
00000048  4883EC20          sub rsp,byte +0x20   ; <-- alocates parameter space , created by INVOKE macro
0000004C  B9EDFE0000        mov ecx,0xfeed
00000051  BA0A000000        mov edx,0xa
00000056  41B8EFBE0000      mov r8d,0xbeef
0000005C  E800000000        call qword 0x61
00000061  4883C420          add rsp,byte +0x20 ; <-- restore parameter space , performed by INVOKE macro
00000065  4831C0            xor rax,rax
00000068  5B                pop rbx
00000069  4889EC            mov rsp,rbp
0000006C  5D                pop rbp
0000006D  C3                ret

INVOKE cannot know whether you have actual code between it and the prior USES/LOCALS macros.
You may wish to use NASMX_PRAGMA CALLSTACK, 32 prior to your proc definition to see how your stack pointer is better optimized.

AND: Is that normal, that invoke macro loads constant parameters into 32 bit registers?

Yes, if it is a value that can fit in 32-bits - will use the shorter opcodes.

Okay, thanks, it's clear, for now. :)

Encryptor256's Investigation \ Research Department.